Lymphoma is a malignant lesion of the lymph nodes. Lymphomas are a number of oncological diseases that affect lymphocytes (white blood cells). One of the varieties of this type of cancer is non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. It includes almost all tumor diseases of lymphoid tissue, with the exception of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The latter type of disease is quite rare and is diagnosed in only 12 percent of cases of cancer of the lymphocytes.
If lymphoma is detected in Israel, the chances of a complete cure are very high, since Israeli oncology uses modern methods, as well as quickly and efficiently diagnoses.
Lymphomas are capable of rapid progression, which poses a serious threat to the patient’s life. Spreading through the lymphatic stream, cancer cells can penetrate into distant organs. The treatment of lymphoma is based on the type of pathology and the course of the disease. However, even with a sufficiently advanced form, treatment of lymphoma abroad in most cases allows you to get a positive trend.
During the disease, 4 stages are distinguished:
Stage 1 – this stage is diagnosed if the lesion is detected in one area of the lymph nodes or outside the nodes or in one organ.
Stage 2 – inherent in pathology that develops in one region and affects two or more nodes on one side of the diaphragm or in the tissues and organs surrounding them.
Stage 3 – two or more lymph nodes located on opposite sides of the diaphragm are affected.
Stage 4 – metastases spread throughout the body, penetrating the nervous system, spleen, bone marrow and other organs.
Treatment for lymphoma often begins when the disease is in a late stage of development. This is due to the lack of severe symptoms in the first stages. It is usually possible to detect the presence of lymphoma when examining the patient for another reason. Therefore, do not ignore even a short increase in the lymph nodes.
Based on the diagnostic results, a personalized program is developed. In Israel, examination of patients is carried out in a short time and allows you to make a diagnosis with maximum accuracy. There are many pathologies that can lead to an increase in lymph nodes, but modern methods help to quickly screen out other problems, identifying oncology.
A comprehensive diagnosis is recommended, which takes no more than a week. The program includes:
Special tests confirm the diagnosis, allowing you to accurately identify the stage of the pathology. Diagnostic results and the patient’s previous medical history make it possible to draw up a program with optimal treatment methods that allow obtaining a positive result.
What lymphoma treatments are used in Israel
I must say that the treatment of cancer in Israel gives high forecasts for complete healing. However, it is worth noting that the treatment is quite difficult, since pathology very often gives complications. The goal of treatment is to stop the malignant process, minimizing the risk of serious complications.
Treatment of lymphoma in Israel is carried out comprehensively. Most often, a combination of radio and chemotherapy is used. In some forms of the disease, lymphoma treatments such as biological therapy are indicated. The prognosis is recognized as positive if it is possible to achieve complete remission. After this, the patient should be under medical control for 2-3 years.
Surgical treatment is recommended for more severe, progressive forms of pathology, when the tumor has spread to the internal organs. Before surgery, therapy is performed to reduce the size of the tumor. In the practice of Israel there are many cases when the treatment of pathology was successful in the later stages.
Lymphoma is not a sentence. In the medical centers of Israel, all conditions have been created for the effective fight against cancer. Quick diagnostics and high qualification of medical personnel can cope with the disease by healing patients who are not at risk of being taken by doctors from other countries.
To make it easier for doctors to evaluate the course of the disease and make a prognosis of survival, a single prognostic index has been created, which operates on an international scale. Its indicator directly depends on several factors, namely:
cancer patient age group;
stages of development of lymphoma;
the spread of the tumor to the organs of the external lymph system;
general physical condition of the patient;
the level of LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), which is determined by a blood test.
A good prognosis for a disease is indicated when a combination of the following factors is present:
patient age group up to 60 years;
initial stages of the disease (1 or 2);
the absence of metastases or their presence in only one direction;
good physical condition of the patient;
LDH is normal.
If the patient’s indicators differ in one or more points, this indicates a poor prognosis. To grade the degree of survival and recovery, it is customary to use a 5-point scale. Assessment is given taking into account 4 risk groups.
Low group – characterized by zero or single adverse circumstances.
Intermediate low – have 2 unfavorable indicators.
High intermediate – they are characterized by 3 indicators.
High have 4 or 5 adverse factors.
Over the past decade, oncologists have closely monitored patients and studied statistics. As a result of this, it was possible to conclude that in the low risk group 75% of patients lived for more than 5 years. In the high risk group of 5 years, only 30% of cancer patients live. Over the past few years, these figures have been significantly increased. Due to the fact that the treatment of lymphoma is carried out according to the latest methods, 95% of people have been living in a low risk group for more than four years, and 55% live with a high risk group for so much time.
This type of lymphoma has a significantly lower growth rate, so there is a separate prognostic index for it. Good factors include:
age up to 60 years;
initial stages (1 or 2);
hemoglobin is higher than 12 / g;
metastatic lesions of less than 4 lymphatic areas;
good LDH performance.
Speaking about what gives lymphoma survival, it is imperative to take into account the stage of the disease. Of no less importance is the method of treatment, since they all give different percentages of effectiveness. An adverse outcome can significantly reduce the latest developments, for example, stem cell transplantation.
Doctors also talk about the effect of the type of disease:
follicular form – a favorable outcome in 96% of cases;
diffuse B-cell – 65%;
large-mesh lymphoma – 71%.
If we make a forecast for 5 years of patient survival, then the indicators will be as follows:
patients with the first stage – 82%;
patients with the second stage – 88%;
patients with the third stage of lymphoma – 36%;
with the fourth stage of the disease – 49%.
Characteristically, the younger the patient, the more likely he is to recover, and the greater the survival rate.
At the age from 15 to 39 years, lymphoma prognosis for men gives 83%, while in 80-99 years this indicator is only 36%.
In women from 15 to 39 years, a five-year survival period is possible in 86%, and in 80-99 years, only 40%.
If we compare the indicators of 1990 and the last few years, the survival of patients has increased significantly. Moreover, among men this figure is 30%, and among women 39%. Such data indicate progressive dynamics.
It is known that non-Hodgkin lymphoma begins its development in the human lymphatic system, consisting of vessels and lymph. B- and T-type cells, changing under the influence of cancer, begin uncontrolled division. The accumulation of such pathological cells can be observed in the spleen or lymph nodes. A characteristic feature of this cancer is the rapid spread of the tumor throughout the body by lymphatic flow.
Pursuing the search for factors influencing the development of the disease, scientists came to the conclusion that in places of pollution of the atmosphere with benzene, the frequency of lymphomas is much higher. Such indicators are observed in large cities and where oil refineries are located.
Benzene is a volatile, colorless liquid. According to the classification of the Environmental Protection Agency, it is a carcinogen. Its presence is noted in those products that are derived from oil and coal. I found my use of benzene in the production of detergents, plastic and pesticides. Standing out in the atmosphere, it is subsequently absorbed by a person when breathing. Oncologists have long ago revealed the effect of this compound on the occurrence of blood cancer – leukemia. Connections with lymphoma have been established recently.
The results of studies conducted in the state of Georgia have been published and clearly demonstrate the dependence of the frequency of lymphoma on the environmental situation. Data was collected from 1999 to 2008. Studies have shown that the highest incidence rate is in those areas in which oil refineries were located in 1988-1998. Among these areas are noted cities: Augusta, Atlanta and Savannah. According to scientists, this happened because benzene was released into the atmosphere and got into the water for a long time. The southern part of the state, by contrast, has lower rates for the diagnosis of lymphoma. It has been suggested that the risk of illness is reduced when moving away from benzene sources. Subsequently, this hypothesis was confirmed. Moreover, scientists were able to calculate that with each mile the risk decreased by about 0.31%.
Christopher Flowers, professor at Emory University, emphasized in his interview that even small distances can significantly affect the risk factor, as studies have shown.
In addition, scientists are seriously concerned about the rapid growth of cases of diagnosis of the disease. So, with a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, patient statistics increase by 4% every year. In 2013, in the United States alone, 70,000 new cases were reported. The average estimates of the National Cancer Institute predict nearly 19 thousand deaths this year due to lymphoma. Such indicators can be done even with the effective treatment of cancer. So, the statistics of medical institutions suggests that in 70% of cases, patients show more than 5-year survival period.
Somewhat earlier, oncologists conducted research in China, trying to find a connection between the interaction with benzene and blood cancer. Inspections were 75 thousand workers who were involved in industrial production from 1972 to 1987. Some regularity was found, since those people who had been in contact with benzene for a long time died from lymphoma 4 times more often. In addition, a valid benzene content in the air was identified. In the workplace, only 1 particle of benzene is allowed per million air particles. However, even such small indicators can also be dangerous to humans.
Despite the fact that scientists have proved the effect of benzene on the risk of developing lymphoma, there are individual factors. In other words, even the presence of this fluid in the air does not mean that all workers will get cancer. There is no way to find out the percentage of individual risk.