Онкология Медицина информация

Онкология Медицина информация

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Prostate Cancer – Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Statistical data tell us that prostate cancer is the second largest cancer in men, ahead of only lung cancer. 5% of men aged 50-70 years suffer from this disease, in those who have reached a respectable 70 years of age, prostate cancer is detected in a quarter of cases. The reason for all these misfortunes is the unfavourable situation with the prostate. Half of the adult male population of the planet has certain problems with the prostate gland – prostatitis, acute or chronic, adenoma, stagnation in the prostate, sclerosis.

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Content:

 
  1. Prostate Cancer – Causes
  2. Symptoms of Prostate Cancer
  3. Prostate Cancer Stages
  4. Prostate Cancer Metastasis
  5. Diagnosis of prostate cancer
  6. Prostate Cancer Treatment in Israel
  7. Advanced Prostate Cancer Treatments
  8. Prostate Cancer Treatment Abroad
  9. Prostate Cancer Treatment in Russia and Belarus
  10. Worldwide statistics
  11. Prostate cancer: prognosis depending on the staging of the disease
  12. Prostate Cancer Prevention
  13. The cost of treating prostate cancer abroad
Prostate Cancer – Causes

elderly men, when the hormonal background falls, prostate diseases play the role of catalysts for cancer growth. It is also worth considering how much the world around us has changed, most men:

leads a sedentary lifestyle;
suffers from overeating;
drink alcohol;
irregular or excessive sexual activity;
hereditary predisposition also plays a role.

Symptoms of Prostate Cancer

Symptoms, as mentioned above, do not appear immediately, but when the tumour grows to an impressive size and begins to cause inconvenience:

urinary retention or rapid urination;
pain in the lower abdomen, perineum, groin;
an admixture of mucus and blood in urine and semen;
constipation
problems with sexual functions.

Similar symptoms can also signal only prostate adenoma, but in any case, a specialist examination is necessary.

Prostate Cancer Stages


The first is a small tumor located inside the prostate, there are practically no symptoms;
The second – the tumor grows and begins to squeeze the urethra – disorders during urination and sexual intercourse, pain;
Third – the tumor squeezes the capsule of the prostate, because of this there are pains in the lower abdomen and in the perineum, a complete retention of urine;
Fourth, a tumor grows in the prostate, and grows in neighboring organs – the bladder, pelvic tissue, and rectum. There is weight loss, anemia, an increase in the abdomen, blood in the urine and sperm, pain. The tumor gives metastases to the lungs, liver, and bones.


Prostate Cancer Metastasis

In the early stages, prostate cancer is localized, metastases are not detected. Therefore, treatment started at the initial stage of the disease gives a very good and lasting result.

If the cancer continues to progress, the tumor gives metastases, which spread by the lymphogenous route to the retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes. Malignant tumors of the prostate are prone to metastasis in the bone – hips, pelvis, ribs, spine. Often metastases are found in the lungs and liver.

Diagnosis of prostate cancer

 

Diagnosing prostate cancer today is not a big deal. In modern clinics, the following methods of tumor investigation and detection of metastases are used for this:

transrectal ultrasound examination;
CT scan;
Magnetic resonance imaging;
positron emission tomography;
ultrasound examination of organs;
bone scintigraphy.

If necessary, a puncture biopsy of the tumor is performed, laboratory tests of blood, prostatic juice, urine, and PSA are performed. All these methods allow you to accurately determine the nature of the tumor itself, its stage, spread and detect possible metastases.

Prostate Cancer Treatment in Israel

After the examination, the attending physician prescribes a treatment program. As a rule, this is a comprehensive treatment, which includes:

surgical intervention;
chemotherapy
radiotherapy;
immunotherapy;
hormone therapy.

It should be noted that the treatment of prostate cancer in Israel today is considered the most effective – 90% of patients are cured, and in cases with advanced forms and stages of cancer, having undergone treatment in Israel, patients significantly extend their life and improve its quality.

Oncology of the prostate gland is very common throughout the world. Moreover, its epidemiology varies greatly depending on the country of residence and the region.

Advanced Prostate Cancer Treatments

Radical prostatectomy is the most effective treatment for prostate cancer, which gives excellent results in the early stages. However, the traditional operation to remove the prostate gland is quite complicated, and can lead to a number of complications, such as narrowing of the urethra, urinary incontinence, impotence.

To avoid negative consequences, leading clinics use the latest technology in the form of laparoscopic or robot-assisted prostatectomy. Such operations are minimally traumatic and provide high precision exposure.

The following innovative techniques have also entered into everyday practice:

Cryotherapy is a method of removing tumors by freezing with liquid nitrogen. Under the influence of low temperatures, malignant cells die. For certain categories of patients, this technique can replace surgical intervention.
External radiation therapy is carried out using advanced technologies to reduce side effects and increase the effectiveness of the method. These technologies include variable intensity radiation therapy (IMRT).
Brachytherapy involves the introduction of a radiation source directly into the prostate gland. The method allows you to use a higher dose of radiation, since the effect is directed to the affected area and affects little healthy tissue. Brachytherapy is only used to treat localized prostate cancer.
Prostate Cancer Treatment Abroad

With prostate cancer, it is important to choose the optimal treatment tactics for the patient, which will be most successful. Many patients prefer to be treated abroad, as in foreign clinics they use advanced technologies that allow for gentle treatment.

The effectiveness of the treatment of prostate cancer in foreign clinics is very high. If cancer is detected before the start of metastasis, a positive result is almost guaranteed.

Prostate Cancer Treatment in Russia and Belarus

You can get high-quality medical services not only abroad. In Russia and Belarus, there are many clinics that work in accordance with international standards. The qualifications of doctors and an individual approach to the patient are the priorities of such medical institutions.

The cost of treating prostate cancer in clinics in Russia and Belarus is much lower than in European or American.

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Worldwide statistics

If to speak

about the United States, the statistics of prostate cancer (PCa) is approximately the following: out of 100 thousand men, prostate cancer is diagnosed in at least 120 people. At the same time, 20 out of 100,000 die every year from this type of cancer. Not the least role is played by racial affiliation. Black Americans are 1.6 times more likely to suffer from prostate cancer, and their mortality rates are 2.3 times higher than white Americans in the United States.

The highest incidence rates are observed in North America, while the lowest rates are observed in the Far East and Asia. Compared to the United States, mortality from prostate cancer in Asian countries is 18 times less. For China, such official statistics are as follows: out of 100,000 men, only a few people get prostate cancer and few die from this cancer.

Europe got the “golden mean” of statistics, its indicators here are higher than in Asia, but less than in the USA. Of the 100,000 men, approximately 40 people become cancerous, and about 20 out of 100,000 die from prostate cancer.

Scientists and doctors are still solving the puzzle of such discrepancies in data. It is believed that their causes may be:

environmental situation in the country;
life expectancy of people in different countries;
race features;
the level of development of medicine and the state’s contribution to the health sector.

An interesting fact is that if the population moves to a permanent place of residence from a country with a low disease level to countries with higher incidence and mortality rates, then they have an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. And there is real evidence for that. For example, Japan is on the list of countries with the lowest incidence statistics worldwide. It is reliably known that if the Japanese go to live in the United States, then they will have the same risk of developing prostate cancer as white-skinned American citizens. So it is impossible to exclude the influence of local factors on the development of cancer.

Russia is a country with a fairly favorable epidemiology when compared with the United States. But compared to China, Japan and India, the situation is not very good. According to the average statistics for 2005, out of 100,000 Russians with prostate cancer, approximately 21% are ill. The mortality rate of 100,000 people is no more than 11%. At the same time, in the early 90s, these figures were 2 times less. And the problem here is not bad medicine at all. The life expectancy of men simply increased, and they began to live to an age critical for the development of prostate cancer.

Prostate cancer: prognosis depending on the staging of the disease

Today, doctors divide prostate cancer into 5 stages. In the process of diagnosis, they do everything possible to investigate the disease in as much detail as possible, plan treatment for prostate cancer, and make predictions for selected therapy. Most prostate cancers are recognized even before they go beyond the gland. If the disease has not reached the last stage of development, then in 99% of cases the patient will be able to live for at least five years. When the neoplasm is accompanied by metastases, the prognosis will be significantly worse.

If, after a year after treatment, a man is again diagnosed with prostate cancer, doctors talk about a relapse of the disease. In such cases, the tumor develops again in the prostate, but the likelihood of its spread to the bones and organs is not excluded. In the event of a relapse, doctors are developing a new set of therapeutic methods that were not used in the course of initial therapy.

If the third and fourth stages of prostate cancer are accompanied by metastases, then treatment is required urgently. The program of such treatment necessarily includes:

remote irradiation of the gland and regional lymph nodes;
hormone therapy;
castration (both surgical and medical).

If the disease is not accompanied by metastases, chemotherapy is carried out at an early stage.

Forecasts for prostate cancer 1 degree

The tumor at this stage cannot be determined visually. She is not even visible on an x-ray. Typically, cancer is diagnosed in tissue samples during surgery that involves prostatic hyperplasia. A biopsy is another way to detect grade 1 prostate cancer. This method of research is used with increased concentration of prostate-specific antigen in the blood. Cancer is rated on the Gleason score. If its cells are found in less than 5% of the tissue, then the rating on this scale will be less than 7. If cancer cells are more than 5%, then the score will be above 7.

The first degree of prostate cancer is characterized by the localization of the tumor strictly in the redistribution of the gland. The neoplasm develops only on the surface of the prostate and does not affect its internal tissues. In such cases, doctors predict a 10-year survival rate in 95-100% of cases.

Forecasts for prostate cancer 2 degrees

The neoplasm is palpated, but still does not leave the capsule, which grows around the prostate. The size of the tumor may be less than 50% of one half of the prostate gland. In this case, the tumor can develop on two halves of the prostate.

Above

According to the degree of development of the tumor, it is still isolated. It is located within the prostate gland, but already grows in its internal tissues. Predictions in this situation are as follows: 10-year survival in 60% of cases.

Forecasts for prostate cancer 3 degrees

Cancer treatment abroad is no longer without surgical intervention, and hormone therapy and radiation are also required. The main goal of such therapy is to stop the growth of the tumor and neutralize the painful symptoms. The course of treatment will necessarily take into account the characteristics of the patient’s body.

Prognosis of prostate cancer is no longer as favorable as for the previous stages. In 50-60% of cases, 5-year survival is predicted. It is impossible to say one hundred percent that the disease will not recur. Only the patient himself can influence the successful outcome of treatment. For this, every man who has reached 45 years of age should undergo preventive examinations once a year. Early diagnosis of prostate cancer includes rectal examination of the gland, ultrasound, determination of the level of PSA.

If at the 3rd stage of prostate cancer there is metastasis to the pelvic organs and metastases in the regional lymph nodes are detected (which often happens), then the survival rate will not exceed 60%.

Predictions for prostate cancer 4 and 5 degrees

These degrees of cancer are characterized by rapid metastasis, the symptoms of which appear literally within a few days. Cancer cells spread through the bloodstream and through the lymphatic system, and the obstructive, iliac and hypogastric lymph nodes are affected. Expanding, lymph nodes lead to swelling of the lower limbs and genitals. Lesion of bone tissue with metastases is accompanied by severe pain. Most often, cancer affects the bones of the skull, pelvis, hips, ribs and spine. For pain in the lungs, liver and adrenal glands, doctors suggest metastasis to internal organs.

If you delay the treatment of such cancer, then the 5-year survival rate will be less than 50%.

So, prostate cancer, – the survival rate during its development directly depends on the stage at which it is diagnosed. Despite the enormous potential of modern medicine and new methods of treating cancer, it is impossible to completely cure PCa of the last stage. Therefore, prevention and regular checkups for men should come first.

Prostate Cancer Prevention

Prophylaxis of prostate cancer is mainly aimed at early diagnosis. Men who have reached the age of 40-45 are recommended to undergo a prophylactic rectal examination once a year. At the slightest suspicion, the doctor will prescribe an ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs.

You can reduce your risk of developing prostate cancer by living a healthy lifestyle. It is necessary to give up smoking and alcohol abuse, move more and eat right.

The cost of treating prostate cancer abroad

The cost of treating such an important, gentle male organ as the prostate, which is also the prostate gland, is quite complicated, since the disease is practically not diagnosed in the early stages. However, oncourology is the “horse” of Israeli medicine, medical centers and clinics are equipped with the latest technology, the staff is highly qualified and experienced. The cost of treating prostate cancer abroad – in Western Europe and the USA, the course of treatment will cost an order of magnitude more than in clinics in Israel.

Learn more about the cost of treating prostate cancer and not only, you can contact us on the website by filling out a short contact form and one of our coordinating doctors will contact you.

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